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THE r " IN HISTORY AND IN ART 
C3CT! 



Felis catus, felis domestica, the domestic cat, the ordinary or 
more aptly the extraordinary pussy, has through more than 4500 
years of recorded history inspired reverence, fear and hatred out 
of all proportion to its value to the human race. In recurrence as per- 
ennial as the proverbial nine lives of the cat, its history has repeated 
cycle after cycle of dread and admiration, persecution and tolerance, 
indifference and worship. Such extremes of feeling might be under- 
standable in the case of other members of the family Felidae, such as 
the lion, the tiger, the puma or the jaguar; but that the harmless 
little family pet, quietly lapping milk, or the gaunt alley cat, rattling 
ash cans or caterwauling in the moonlight, should be the object of 
such varying emotions on the part of man is remarkable. 

This "first pet of civilization" was probably tamed by savages, 
untold centuries before recorded history, to guard the grain, to hunt 
and to fish. Rudyard Kipling, in The Cat that Walks by Itself, gives 
a colorful version of the cat's entrance into family life. As the cat 
proved its value to a tribe, it often became the totem of the tribe, as 
did such other animals as the bull and the ram. In the evolution of 
civilization in the Nile Valley, it seems that tribal totems not infre- 
quently became endowed with a sacred quality; the ox, the dog, the 
crocodile, the hawk and the serpent, among others, were venerated, 
but none was more revered than the domestic cat. A single city might 
maintain the cult of one animal or another, but the cat was held in 
veneration throughout the length of the land, while having its special 

1 



centre of worship at Bubastis ( the Pi-besth of the Old Testament ) , 
capital of Am-khent in Lower Egypt. 

The Egyptians' name for the cat was mau, meaning "to see;" and 
more than one of their gods was endowed with feline attributes. Most 
familiar to us, perhaps, is the cat-headed goddess Bast, with variant 
names Bubastis and Pasht, the Goddess of the Moon who resembles in 
some aspects such divinities of later civilizations as Aphrodite, Venus 
and Freya. Worshipped over many centuries, her cult was at its 
zenith toward 1500 B.C., when thousands made the pilgrimage to her 
shrine at Bubastis. But the lion-headed goddess of war, Sakhmet, was 
occasionally represented with the head of a cat; Isis was sometimes 
depicted with the ears of a cat; and even Ra, the sun-god, has been 
found in cat form. An ultimate fusion of characteristics of Bast, 
Sakhmet and Ra, also in cat form, was personified in the god Mut. 

It is not surprising that the animal whose characteristics were im- 
puted to divinity should have fared well in Egypt. Cats were allowed 
entrance into the sacred precincts of temples, and had shrines of their 
own where offerings were made to cats of wood and bronze. Cats 
were household pets, no less than they are with us today, but with a 
difference: when a cat died, members of the household were required 
by law to shave off their eyebrows as a sign of mourning. Exportation 
of cats was forbidden, and agents were sent abroad to catch stolen 
cats ( or their descendants ) and return them to Egypt. Killing a cat 
was punishable by death. As early as the Sixth Dynasty (2600 B.C. ) 
cats were buried in the same manner as humans, their bodies being 
carefully embalmed and wrapped in linen windings. Besides 
Bubastis, many other cities had large cat burial grounds. One such, 
at Beni-Hassan, uncovered in 1895, contained the mummies of one 
hundred eighty thousand cats, a veritable gold mine for the modern 
entrepreneurs who shovelled them into ship holds and sold them to 
English farmers for fertilizing the fields. 

The lithe beauty of the cat did not elude the Egyptian artist, 

2 



whether engaged in solemn work in temple and tomb, or in the pro- 
duction of less momentous amulets and ornaments. Representations 
of the animal were carved and painted in tombs, as in the lunettes at 
Thebes in the tomb of Ken-Amun, of which a reproduction is ex- 
hibited as Number 84, and the low relief from the tomb of Surere. 
The large quantity of minor objects of cat form made in Egypt is 
typified by a gold bracelet inlaid with two gold cats and one carnelian 
cat, exhibited as Number 97. 

The spread of the cat from Egypt to other Mediterranean areas 
was apparently accomplished by Phoenician sailors, despite Egyptian 
prohibition of export, in a sort of reverse bootlegging activity. Evi- 
dence that cats were known elsewhere is found in wall-decoration 
and in stone sculpture in Asia Minor and in Cyprus; and the Cretan 
fresco, Cat Stalking a Bird, from Hagia Triada, of about 1600 B.C., is 
familiar to us all. The Assyrians, the Babylonians and the Jews appar- 
ently did not know the cat as a domestic animal; although an interest- 
ing reference to the cat that occurs in the Hebrew Passover ritual 
may reflect the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt. 

Perhaps because of their earlier familiarity with dogs, the Greeks 
did not easily welcome the introduction of ailuroi, or tail-wavers, as 
Herodotus called them. These exotic imports were better than mar- 
tens, previously used as rodent-catchers, and so were at first barely 
tolerated as an economic necessity. Slowly, over a period of several 
centuries, the cat insinuated itself into its household position. Repre- 
sentation of cats is found on some fifth-century coins, grave steles, 
red-figured vases and later clay lamps; and a relief of the late sixth 
century B.C. in the National Museum in Athens shows us a cat and 
a dog on leashes. 

In Rome the cat came more fully into its own as a household pet. 
Here, too, one of its characteristics not previously given specific rec- 
ognition was for the first time admired and celebrated: the independ- 
ent cat served as a symbol of liberty. In the Temple of Liberty, built 

3 



by Tiberius Gracchus in the third century B.C., the Goddess of Li- 
berty was shown with a cat at her feet; and the same iconographic 
practice was followed in other instances. It is interesting to note that 
the cat has continued to typify liberty at various places since Roman 
times, appearing after the fall of Rome on the banners of Teutonic 
tribes, in the Middle Ages being used by the Dukes of Burgundy, 
serving the Dutch during their struggle for liberation in the sixteenth 
century, and reappearing as a symbol of freedom and independence 
at the time of the French Revolution. 

The domestic cat was introduced into England during the time 
when Britain was a Roman colony, and became a great favorite there 
as well as in Ireland. With the coming of Christianity, the cat con- 
tinued to command respect; one was the pet of the sixth-century Pope 
Gregory the Great. St. Patrick also had a cat; and as the cat is the 
only animal except the weasel that will attack and kill a snake, it has 
been suggested that the cat was an able auxiliary to St. Patrick when 
he cleared Ireland of snakes. Cats also accompanied the Irish monks 
on their travels through Western Europe; and certain of the early 
Irish churches included in their architectural decoration the repre- 
sentation of cats. The great landmark of Irish manuscript illumina- 
tion, the ninth-century Book of Kells ( of which a facsimile is exhibited 
as Number 18) has an abundance of cats. On the Monogram page, 
two rats eat the Eucharistic Bread while two cats watch. This has 
been interpreted as typifying Evil assailing Virtue, while the power 
of the Almighty prepares to smite. Another excellent example of the 
realistic rendering of cats appears in the Argument to the Gospel 
according to St. John, in the same manuscript. 

Cats had become so scarce and valuable by this period that the 
laws of England and Wales, among others, provided heavy punish- 
ments for cat-killers. During the reign of Henry the Fowler, in Eng- 
land in the ninth century, a heavy fine was imposed on persons who 
injured cats. In the tenth century a series of laws concerning cats 

4 



was drawn up by order of Howel Dda, King of South Wales, by a 
body of learned men called together for the purpose. Although there 
is a noticeable absence of cats from the architectural decoration of 
these centuries, examples are found at Tarragona, in Spain, where a 
Romanesque capital shows a supposedly dead cat being carried off 
by rats, later springing at them; and again at Moissac, in France, 
where a capital is carved with the representation of a cat and her 
kittens. 

Demon cats are not found among other demons in the architec- 
tural decoration of early Gothic structures, since the cat was not yet 
regarded with the mistrust that it later aroused. On the contrary, 
nothing could be more engaging than the cats of various colors who 
hold rats firmly in their clasp, as illustrated by the miniaturist of the 
Lincoln Bestiary that we are so fortunate as to exhibit here ( Number 

ii). 

As the value of the cat in human economy became once again 
apparent, so did, surprisingly enough, its other-worldly aspects that 
had been disregarded since the days of Ancient Egypt. In certain 
parts of Germany arose a cat craze which assumed the scope of a cult, 
reviving the earlier cult of Freya, the Norse feline goddess of love 
and fertility. Accompanied by their cats, women met in sacred groves 
and there carried on rites that probably gave rise to the later folk 
traditions of the Witches' Sabbath. The Church, alarmed at the rise 
of such pagan notions, preached against them; and in 1484 Pope 
Innocent VIII ordered that all worshippers of Freya be burned as 
witches. In the German states alone more than one hundred thou- 
sand people are said to have been executed; and the cat mortality 
was correspondingly great. 

The persecution of witches was renewed in other countries. Dur- 
ing Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth, more than sixty witches were 
burned in England; and eighty years later witch-burning was still 
being enjoyed in Scotland. Here again the keeping of a cat was re- 

5 



garded as presumptive evidence of indulgence in the blackest arts. At 
the same time occurred our own witchcraft trials at Salem; and witch- 
craft charges were still being brought in South Carolina as late as 
1800. 

A natural accompaniment of the prosecution of imagined witches 
was the persecution of their soft-treading familiars. As the fires were 
kindled for those condemned of witchcraft, cats had their own unde- 
served torments to bear. Legally condemned to be dipped in oil and 
set afire, thrown from towers on special feast days, beaten to death 
with whips or knotted ropes, scalded and skinned alive, the cat some- 
how managed to survive. 

What was perhaps still more trying, however, was the deteriora- 
tion of general regard for the cat that accompanied these official 
excesses. In Denmark, cats were nailed into a barrel suspended be- 
tween uprights and tilted at with lances; the Dane who won the 
match was designated as Cat King. The French invented the "Cat 
Organ," a box fitted with pedals and housing cats; pressure on the 
pedals caused the imprisoned cats to scream and so to make "music." 
In England, archers found sport in shooting at suspended leather 
sacks in which cats were enclosed. Many of these customs and the 
general feeling of the period are familiar to us in the plays of Shake- 
speare. It is not to be wondered that with cats suffering such atten- 
tions, the rats of Hamelin got so out of hand as to require the services 
of a Pied Piper. 

While the Gothic North was suffering from its superstitions, Ren- 
aissance Italy had a different tale to tell. There the cat was so well 
regarded as frequently to be included in paintings of the Holy Family, 
such as the Holy Family and Saints, by Dosso Dossi, in the John G. 
Johnson Collection. The Last Supper by Tintoretto, in San Giorgio 
Maggiore in Venice, also includes a cat with no suggestion of sinister 
associations. By the eighteenth century the cat was once again back 
in good grace throughout Western Europe, figuring in the paintings 

6 



of Watteau, Boucher and Greuze, of Gainsborough and Goya, being 
modelled in the porcelain of Meissen and a dozen other factories, and, 
as the pet of Walpole, having her death mourned by the poet Thomas 
Grey. 

The following century turned the full force of its sentimentality 
toward the cat, with results that are still with us. From the middle 
of the century onward there has been a deluge of badly made, badly 
drawn or painted cats, cats worked in beads, simpering china cats, 
cats on trade cards, Valentines and innumerable Currier and Ives 
kittens playing with balls, with yarn or their own tails. The end of 
this development does not seem yet in sight; though comfort is found 
in the excellent work that has followed along at the same time. The 
cats of Grandville and Steinlen, of Manet and Degas, are not of the 
pincushion school; Foujita and Jane Poupelet have reassured us in 
our feeling that cats are more than merely "cute." It is perhaps a 
large element in the long success enjoyed by The Tailor of Gloucester 
that its author, Beatrix Potter, knew well the character of the cat, 
Simpkin, whose likeness is happily included in the exhibition ( Num- 
ber 91). 

In the Orient, as far as one can judge from the meagre informa- 
tion available in Occidental sources, the cat has enjoyed a history 
quite as long and as varied as it has in the West. Cats were depicted 
in China as early as 2200 B.C., and are known to have been house- 
hold pets at least at the beginning of the Christian Era. Along with 
many other elements of its culture, Japan obtained the cat from 
China, and the artists and artisans of Japan have been no less active 
in translating the cat form into ceramics and bronzes, ivory, stone and 
wood. Folk lore and superstitions about the feline abound in both 
empires, which agreed in finding among cats benign and demonic 
spirits. 

One of the many charming legends of Japan concerns the death 
of Buddha. The gods, nobles, peasants and all the animals came to 

7 



mourn at the death of the Holy One, but the cat refused to come. 
Earlier Japanese scroll paintings depict the scene without a cat; but 
in the thirteenth century the cat is shown for the first time in the 
scroll of the Death of Buddha included in the exhibition ( Number 
119) . Although represented among the mourners, the cat here is left 
to himself, shunned by all the other animals. 

Elsewhere in Asia the cat was held in even greater esteem than 
in the Far East. In Siam it was considered to possess royal qualities; 
and those who know him have not yet decided whether this exalted 
station was the cause or the result of the Siamese cat's disposition. 
Cats had their place in Hindu religious observance, and were not 
unknown in Persia, as we are fortunately able to show in the rare 
illuminated manuscript, Manafi al Hayawan (Number 12), painted 
about 1290. Even the Prophet, Mohammed, had according to legend 
shown due deference to his cat when he cut the sleeve of his garment 
rather than disturb the sleeping animal. 

But the legend and folk-lore surrounding the theme of our exhibi- 
tion are too rich and varied for discussion here, as are the darker 
superstitions that abound in equal profusion. Without further dis- 
cussion, it seems safe to let the cat, as he is represented in the present 
display, speak for himself; safe, or at least the part of wisdom. He has 
always managed in his contrary way to assert his own wishes and 
opinions, despite what we might hold to be our better judgment. 
Rather than attempting to fathom the depths of his nature and to 
explain his last mysteries, we can with better grace agree with Clar- 
ence Day's suggestion that "this might be a better world if cats ran it." 

Alleine Dodge 
February 23, 1949 




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Cat and Fowl 

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CATALOGUE 

( The numbers set in parentheses after the descriptions of the objects 
refer to the owners of the objects, as shown in the list of Lenders to the 
Exhibition printed on pages 15 and 16.) 



BOO 

1. 



9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 
14. 

15. 
16. 



Book of the Dead; Egypt ( 1580-1315 
B.C.). Facsimile of the Papyrus of Ani 
(British Museum). 2nd edition, Lon- 
don, 1894 (14) * 

Grandville (Jean Ignace Isidore Geran, 
1803-1847), Scenes de la Vie Privee et 
Publique des Animaux; J. Hetzel et 
Paulin, Paris, 1842 (14) 
Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), The Tailor 
of Gloucester; F. Warne and Co., New 
York, 1903 (14) 

Gaetano Giarre, Invento E Incise Ques- 
to Nuovo Metodo per Formare un Bel 
Carattere; Baffaello Morghen, Toscano, 
1800 (14) 

Gaetano Giarre, Alfabeto di Lettere 
Iniziali Adorno di Animali; Giacomo 
Moro, Firenze, 1797 ( 14 ) 
John Church, A Cabinet of Quadrupeds; 
consisting of . . . engravings by James 
Tookey; from drawings by Julius Ibbet- 
son; Darton and Harvey, London, 1805 
(14) 

Walter Crane ( 1845-1915), Cinderella's 
Picture Book; John Lane, London, 1897 
(14) 

Thomas Bewick (1753-1828), A Gen- 
eral History of Quadrupeds; Hodgson, 
Reilly, and Bewick, New Castle upon 
Tyne, 1800 (14) 

Alessandri, Innocente, and Pietro Scat- 
taglia, Descrizioni degli Animali; Carlo 
Palese, Venezia, 1771-1775 (14) 
Theophile - Alexandre Steinlen ( 1859- 
1923), Des Chats; Images sans Paroles; 
Flammarion, Paris, n.d. ( 14 ) 
Manuscript, The Lincoln Bestiary, MS. 
81; England, second half of the 12th 
century ^?H) C^S'f 
Manuscript, Bestiary-Manafi al-Haya- 
wan, MS. ^00; Maragha, 1290-1300 

The Clrilds Album; Ward, Lock and 

Tyler, London, about 1871 (40) 

Puss in Boots and the Marquis of Cara- 

bas; illustrated; rendered into verse by 

Mrs. Frances S. Osgood; Benjamin and 

Young, New York, 1844 (40) 

R. M. Ballantyne (1825-1894), The 

Three Little Kittens; T. Nelson and 

Sons, London, 1875 (40) 

Puss in Boots and the Marquis of Cara- 

bas; illustrated by Otto Speckter; D. 



21 

22 
23 
24 
25 



Appleton and Company, New York, 
1851 (40) 

17. The Three Little Kittens (title page 
missing) (40) 

18. Illumination from the Book of Kells ( 9th 
century), from Fascimiles of National 
Manuscripts. Part I, edited by J. T. 
Gilbert; Alexander Thorn, Dublin, 1874 
(35) 

19. Oliver Herford, The Bubdiydt of a 
Persian Kitten; Charles Scribner's Sons, 
New York, 1904 (10) 

CERAMICS 

20. Figure of cat, bisque; German, 19th 
century ( 15 ) 

Cat, glazed pottery; Vienna, Wiener 
Werkstaette, about 1930 (1) 
Cat, glazed pottery; Finland, 20th cen- 
tury ( 1 ) 

Box in the form of a cat's head, por- 
celain; England, late 19th century ( 6 ) 
Box in the form of a cat's head, por- 
celain; England, late 19th century (6) 
Box in the form of a cat concealing a 
group of mice, porcelain; Denmark, 
Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory; 
Copenhagen; 20th century ( 6 ) 

26. Socle, porcelain; France, Paris, late 18th 
century (6) 

27. Cat, glazed earthenware; The Nether- 
lands, Delft, 18th century (7) 

28. Cat, porcelain; Germany, Meissen, 19th 
century (7) 

29. Bast, seated, openwork chair, faience; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 

30. Bast standing with cat at feet, faience; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 

31. Bast seated in openwork chair, faience; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 

32. Bast standing with arms at side, faience; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 
Bast with lotus, seated, faience; Egypt, 
7th to 1st centuries B.C. (9) 
Box and cover, pottery, cream-colored 
glaze; Japan, 19th century ( 13 ) 

35. Bottle in form of cat, yellow-glazed 
pottery; Portugal, contemporary ( 15 ) 

36. Cup and saucer, porcelain; Germany, 
Meissen, about 1900 (24) 

37. Cat, glazed pottery; England, Stafford- 
shire, about 1745 (30) 
Cat, porcelain; Germany, Meissen, about 
1740 (30) 

9 



33 
34 



38 



39. Cat, porcelain; England, Bow, about 
1760 (30) 

40. Pair of cats, porcelain; Germany, Meis- 
sen, about 1745 (30) 

41. Cat, white porcelain; Austria, Augarten, 
20th century ( 31 ) 

42. Standing cat, white porcelain; Ger- 
many, Rosenthal, contemporary (31) 

43. Small cat, porcelain; England, late 18th 
century (31) 

44. Lamp cover in form of cat, porcelain; 
patches of finely-dispersed blue on 
white ground; China, Yung Cheng dy- 
nasty (1723-1735) (32) 

45. Lamp cover in form of cat, porcelain; 
aubergine splashes and hair-lines; China, 
K'ang Hsi period (1664-1722) (32) 

46. Water-dropper for the palette in form 
of cat, porcelain; Tzu Chou type; China, 
Ming dynasty, about 1500 ( 32 ) 

47. Paper weight in form of cat, porcelain, 
celadon glaze; China, Ch'ien Lung peri- 
od (1736-1796) (32) 

48. Lamp cover in form of cat, porcelain; 
blue splashed on white ground; China, 
K'ang Hsi period (1664-1722) (32) 

49. Cat, porcelain; England, Spode, 18th 
century (33) 

50. Cat, agate ware, glazed pottery; Eng- 
land, mid- 18th century (34) 

51. Cat, pottery; England, Staffordshire, 
. 18th century ( 34 ) 

52. Cat, pottery; England, Staffordshire, 
Asbury, mid- 18th century (34) 

53. Cat and kittens, stoneware; Japan, 
Banko, 19th century (34) 

54. Cat, faience; Egypt, 7th to 4th cen- 
turies B.C. (34) 

55. Cat, pottery with white crackle glaze; 
designed by Remo Bufano ( 1894-1948), 
made by Ernest Moore; United States 
(36) 

56. Cat, bisque; France (?), 19th century 
(40) 

57. "Rogers Group", Cowtship in Sleepy 
Hollow, parian ware; designed by John 
Rogers (1829-1904); United States, 
19th century (43) 

58. Whistle in form of cat, brown-glazed 
pottery; United States, mid-19th cen- 
tury (43) 

59. Cat and kitten, porcelain; England, 19th 
century (?) (47) 

60. Cat, pottery, with heraldic decoration; 
France, 20th century (58) 

61. Pitcher in form of cat, pottery, with 
heraldic decoration; France, 20th cen- 
tury (58) 

62. Cat, glazed pottery; England, Stafford- 
shire, 19th century ( 58 ) 

63. Cat, faience; Egypt, 2134-1778 B.C. 
(34) 

64. Tea-tile, glazed pottery; designed and 
made by Carol Janeway, American, 

10 



contemporary (26) 

65. Tray, The Pink Cat, wood, tile; de- 
signed and made by Carol Janeway, 
American, contemporary (26) 

66. Cat, porcelain; Denmark, Copenhagen, 
Royal Copenhagen Porcelain Factory, 
20th century (26) 

67. Egg cup, glazed pottery; designed by 
Jan Clayton, American Contemporary 
(26) 

COSTUME AND COSTUME ACCESSORIES 

68. Mask, papier mache; designed for the 
ballet, Renard, by Esteban Frances; 
United States, 20th century ( 3 ) 

69. Pair of child's shoes, embroidered silk 
and other materials; China, 20th cen- 
tury (5) 

70. Scarf, cotton, plain cloth, printed and 
painted; designed by Bettina Ehrlich; 
England, 1948; made by Ascher (Lon- 
don) Inc. (13) 

71. Fan, black silk crepe, painted with cat 
and dog heads; United States, 19th 
century ( 13 ) 

72. Button, "Cheshire Cat", brass, with 
traces of clear red lacquer; United 
States, late 19th century (45) 

73. Scarf, silk chiffon, applique; designed 
and made by Mariska Karasz; United 
States, contemporary (46) 

74. Suit, printed silk; United States, con- 
temporary (52) 

75. Child's apron, white and blue resist- 
dyed cotton; Western China, 19th cen- 
tury (54) 

76. Serape, wool; Mexico, contemporary 
(58) 

DRAWINGS 

77. View of Paris, pen and ink drawing, 
1867; Winslow Homer (1836-1910), 
American ( 13 ) 

78. Cat and Fowl, pen and ink drawing; 
Italy, 17th century ( 13) 

79. White Cat, drawing, India ink and 
Chinese white; Christina Malman, 
American, contemporary ( 13 ) 

80. Drawing (design for a New Yorker 
cover); Christina Malman, American, 
contemporary ( 13 ) 

81. Two Cats Sleeping, crayon drawing, 
1878; Walter Shirlaw (1838-1909), 
American ( 13 ) 

82. Drawing, Cat costume for the ballet, 
Renard, Esteban Frances, American, 
contemporary (20) 

83. Drawing, No. 492, catalogue, Exposi- 
tion de I'Oeuvre Dessine et Peint de 
T. A. Steinlen; Theophile-Alexandre 
Steinlen (1859-1923), French (34) 

84. Copy of a painted lunette from Thebes; 
Egypt, about 1430 B.C. (34) 

85. Copy of a fresco showing pet cat under 



chair, from a tomb at Thebes; Egypt, 
about 1450 B.C. (34) 

86. Siamese Cat, charcoal drawing; John 
Alonso Williams, American, contem- 
porary (42) 

87. James and Sarah Tuttle, fractur draw- 
ing; 1836; J. H. Davis, Pennsylvania 
(43) 

88. Three drawings of cats; Marie Champ- 
fleury (worked about 1870), French 
(44) 

89. Drawing of a cat by an unknown Jap- 
anese child; Japan, 1933 ( 44 ) 

90. Six drawings of cats, free brush; Ton 
Kelder, Dutch, contemporary (55) 

91. Drawing, watercolor (illustration for 
page 53 of the Tailor of Gloucester); 
Beatrix Potter (1866-1943), English 
(57) 

GLASS 

92. Two colored lantem-slides of Puss in 
Boots; Germany, 19th century (40) 

93. Glass plate, engraved with cat, 1939; 
designed by Isamu Noguchi, made by 
Steuben Glass; United States (56) 

JEWELRY 

94. Scent bottle in the form of a seated cat, 
glass (?), gold, diamonds, emeralds; 
Boucheron, France, Paris, late 19th 
century (6) 

95. Pin, rose diamonds, rubies, pearls, on 
silver; England, about 1840 (24) 

96. Bracelet, gold, with cat's head incised 
and painted on the reverse of a crystal; 
England, about 1870 (24) 

97. Bracelet, gold, carnelian; Egypt, about 
1500 B.C. (34) 

98. Miniature silver cat; Prague, about 1885 
(37) 

99. Pin in the form of a cat playing with a 
ball, silver-tipped gold with rose dia- 
monds and pearl; England, about 1850 
(52) 

100. Brooch, silver, green onyx; United 
States, contemporary (26) 

METALWORK 

101. Harness brass, brass; England, early 
19th century ( 1 ) 

102. Small cat playing with ball, silver; late 
19th century (6) 

103. Paper-weight in form of cat grinding 
pepper, painted bronze; Germany, late 
19th century (19) 

104. Door knocker, iron; Spain, 15th-16th 
century (34) 

105. Sistrum, bronze; Bome (34) 

106. Cat, metal; souvenir of the first New 
York performance of Charley's Aunt, 
December 28, 1893 (40) 

NEEDLEWORK 

107. Pincushion cover, embroidered cotton; 



United States (?), about 1855 (9) 

108. Sampler, embroidered linen; worked by 
Ann Eliza Eyre; United States, 1827 
(13) 

109. Sampler, worked by Carolina Pieraccini; 
Italy, 1829 (47) 

110. Sampler, worked by M. K.; Germany, 
1836 (47) 

111. Sampler, worked by Maria Perez; Mex- 
ico, 1869 (47) 

112. Sampler, worked by Ramoncita Pita; 
Mexico, 1861-2 (47) 

113. Pillow, Elsie, embroidered; leaves de- 
tached buttonhole stitch, Elsie in Cretan 
stitch; designed and made by Mariska 
Karasz, American, contemporary (27) 

114. Cat, beadwork on homespun backing; 
Mexico, mid-19th century (49) 

PAINTINGS 

115. Cat Annoyed by Fly, oil; Will Barnet, 
American, contemporary (4) 

116. Cat, watercolor; Gottfried Mind (1768- 
1814), Swiss (8) 

117. The Transparent Master of Ceremonies, 
oil; Peter Busa, American, contempo- 
rary (11) 

118. Cat and Birds, oil; folk art, United 
States, about 1850 (21) 

119. Death of Buddha, scroll painting on 
silk; Japan, late Kamakura period, about 
1280 (25) 

120. Cat on Rock, scroll painting on paper; 
China, 18th century (32) 

121. Cat Catching a Bird, scroll painting on 
silk; China, Sung dynasty (960-1279) 
(32) 

122. Cat, painting on silk; Kawabata Gyo- 
kush5, Japanese, late 19th century ( 34 ) 

123. Cat, painting on silk, Kiosai (1831- 
1889), Japanese (34) 

124. Head of Cat, watercolor; Auguste 
Pequegnot (1819-1878), French (39) 

125. Girl with Gray Kitten, oil; Moses B. 
Russel (worked 1834-1854), American 
(53) 

126. Tallulah, oil; Adolpho Best-Maugard, 
Mexican, contemporary (58) 

PRINTS AND PRINTING 

127. Trade Card, Chromolithograph; United 
States, 19th century ( 1 ) 

128. "This is much better than children who 
wear you down, and nephews who call 
you a miser," lithograph; Honore Dau- 
mier (1808-1879), French (1) 

129. La Mere aux Chats, lithograph; Eugene 
Marie F. Villain (1821-?), French (1) 

130. Ernest, sans Pedigree, photograph; Ylla, 
French, contemporary ( 1 ) 

131. Print from the series, 100 Views of 
Yeddo, wood block color print; Moton- 
aga Hiroshige (1797-1858), Japanese 
(9) 

11 



132. Puss on the Fence, stereopticon slide; 
United States, 19th century (13) 

133. A Catamaran, hand-colored etching; 
Thomas Rowlandson ( 1756-1827 ), Eng- 
lish(13) 

134. The Fish Peddler, hand-colored litho- 
graph; Giovanni Brizeghel (worked 
about 1859), Italian (13) 

135. Humbugging, aquatint, 1800; Thomas 
Rowlandson ( 1756-1827), English ( 13) 

136. Temptation of St. Anthony, etching; 
after David Teniers; Dutch, 17th cen- 
tury (13) 

137. Cat's Duett, etching (sheet music cov- 
er); W. F. Walker; G. Schirmer, New 
York, 1872 (13) 

138. The Big Cat, engraving; Cornelis Vis- 
scher (1610-1670), Dutch (13) 

139. Children at Play, etching; by Aveline 
after Francois Boucher (1703-1770), 
French ( 13 ) 

140. Adam and Eve, engraving; Albrecht 
Diirer (1471-1528), German (13) 

141. The Holy Family, facsimile of engrav- 
ing; Hendrik Goltzius (1558-1617), 
Dutch (13) 

142. The Annunciation, facsimile of engrav- 
ing; Frederico Baroccio (1528-1612), 
Italian (13) 

143. Three lithographs; Carl F. T. Petzschke 
(worked 1826-1843), German (13) 

144. Studies of Cat and Dog, aquatint; Jean- 
Baptiste Huet (1745-1811), French 
(13) 

145. he Chat, la Belette, et le Petit Lapin, 
etching, from La Fontaine's Fables; 
Jean - Baptiste Oudry (1686-1755), 
French (13) 

146. Winter, engraving; after Dirk Barentz 
(1534-1592), Dutch (13) 

147. Title plate, engraving; after Abraham 
Bloemaert (1564-1651), Dutch (13) 

148. Adam and Eve, engraving; after GilEs 
Mostaert (1534-1598), Dutch (13) 

149. The Jester and his Cat, hand-colored 
engraving; Pierre Landry (1677-1741), 
French (13) 

150. The Albanian and his Cats, hand-colored 

engraving; Jeremiah Wolff (worked 
about 1750), German (13) 

151. The Three White Kittens— Peace, hand- 
colored lithograph; published by Cur- 
rier and Ives, United States, 19th cen- 
tury (17) 

152. The Three White Kittens-War, hand- 
colored lithograph; published by Cur- 
rier and Ives, United States, 19th cen- 
tury (17) 

153. Print from a 15th century woodblock; 
Germany (28) 

154. Siamese Cat, print; Alex Orri, French, 
contemporary (33) 

155. Cats, woodcut; Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, 
Germany, contemporary (34) 

12 



159. 



166. 
167. 



156. On My Doorstep, lithograph; Agnes 
Tait, American, contemporary (34) 

157. Les Chats, etching; Edouard Manet 
(1832-1883), French (34) 

158. Les Chats et les Fleurs, etching; Edou- 
ard Manet (1832-1883), French (34) 
Common Objects, woodcut; John Nash, 
English, contemporary (34) 

160. Lady Artist, etching; Peggy Bacon, 
American, contemporary (34) 

161. The Witches' Sabbath, facsimile of a 
woodcut; Hans Baldung (1484-1545), 
German (34) 

162. The Industrious Apprentice, engraving, 
plate 4, Industry and Idleness series; 
William Hogarth (1697-1764), English 
(34) 

163. The Sleep of the Reason Produces Mon- 
sters, etching; Francisco Jose de Goya 
y Lucientes (1746-1828), Spanish (34) 

164. The Black Cat, print, from drawings to 
illustrate the Tales of Edgar Allen Poe; 
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley ( 1872-1898), 
English (38) 

165. Le Chat, aquatint, plate from the His- 
toire Naturelle of Buffon, Paris, Fabiani, 
1942; Pablo Picasso, Spanish, contem- 
porary (41) 

Cats, lithograph, 1939; Angela Straeter, 
American, contemporary (42) 
William Zorach and Cat, lithograph; 
Aline Fruhauf, American, contemporary 
(42) 

168. Woman and Cat, color block print; 
Kitagawa Utamaro (1753-1806), Jap- 
anese (44) 

169. Woman with a Cat, print; Vladimir 
Donatowitsch Orlowski (1842-1914), 
Russian (44) 

Portrait of a Man in Fez, lithograph; 
Max Beckmann, German, contemporary 
(44) 

Pussy Cat, Pussy Cat, Where Have You 
Been? lithograph; George Biddle, Amer- 
ican, contemporary (44) 
Le Chat, line engraving; Jean Boudal, 
French, contemporary (44) 

173. Puss in Boots, hand-colored lithograph, 
1942; Hans Fischer, Swiss, contempo- 
rary (44) 

Sleeping Cats, woodcut, 1936; Stephen 
de Hospodar, American, contemporary 
(44) 

175. Cat on a Branch, woodcut, 1927; Wik- 
torya J. Gorynska, Polish, contemporary 
(44) 

176. The Aristocrat, lithograph; Agnes Tait, 
American, contemporary (44) 

177. Le Dejeuner, etching (two states); 
Marie Champfleury (worked about 
1870), French (44) 

Cats at Window, wood engraving, 1930; 
Wanda Gag, American, contemporary 
(48) 



170. 



171. 



172. 



174. 



178. 



179. Eliza with Poor Puss, colored woodcut; 207. 
published by B. Brumell, Philadelphia, 
about 1820 (48) 208. 

180. La Paresse, woodcut; Felix Edouard 
Vallotton ( 1865-1925 ) , French ( 48 ) 209. 

181. Churning, etching, 1855; Jean-Francois 
Millet (1814-1875), French (48) 

182. Cat, lithograph, 1929; Tsugouharu Fou- 210. 
jita, Japanese, contemporary (48) 

183. Cats, woodcut, 1921; Gerhardt Marcks, 211. 
German, contemporary (48) 

184. Cat and Goldfish, color woodcut, Utag- 212. 
awa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861), Japanese 

(48) 213. 

185. Three photographs of a Siamese cat 
(55) 

186. Trick picture, color woodcut; Ichiosai 214. 
Yoshifugi, Japanese ( 55 ) 

187. Wild Goose on Rock, Cat; Amusement 215. 
Shadow, series, color woodcut; Moton- 

aga Hiroshige (1797-1858), Japanese 216. 
(55) 

188. Golor woodcut; Motonaga Hiroshige 217. 
(1797-1858), Japanese (55) 

189. Shadow Pictures, color woodcut; Utag- 

awa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861), Japanese 218. 
(55) 

190. The Cat Witch, color woodcut; Utagawa 219. 
Kuniyoshi (1798-1861), Japanese (55) 

191. Color Woodcut; Utagawa Kuniyoshi 220. 
(1798-1861), Japanese (55) 

192. Woman with Cat, color woodcut; Isoda 221. 
Koriusai (1710-1780), Japanese (55) 

193. VEte, colored lithograph; Theophile- 222. 
Alexandre Steinlen ( 1859-1923 ) , French 

(58) 223. 

SCULPTURES AND SMALL CARVINGS 224. 

194. Toggle, wood, cat and rat on winnow- 
ing basket; China, 18th century (5) 225. 

195. Toggle, stone, two cats on a leaf; China, 

19th century (5) 226. 

196. Cat, white marble; Italy (6) 

197. Cat's head, plaque, painted plaster with 

glass eyes; late 19th century ( 6 ) 227. 

198. Reclining cat, bronze; Japan, 19th cen- 
tury (6) 228. 

199. Model of a seated cat, plaster; France, 

early 19th century (6) 229. 

200. Small carved cat, translucent glass or 
stone; France, late 19th century (6) 230. 

201. Cat suckling kittens, bronze, original 
wooden base; Egypt, 7th to 4th cen- 
turies B.C. (9) 231, 

202. Large cat's head, bronze; Egypt, 7th to 

4th centuries B.C. (9) 232. 

203. Seated cat, wood; Egypt, 7th to 4di 
centuries B.C. (9) 233. 

204. Cat's head, bronze with gold earrings; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 234. 

205. Cat and two kittens on column, bronze; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 235. 

206. Bast in human dress, bronze; Egypt, 
7th to 4th centuries B.C. (9) 



Cat, bronze; Egypt, 7tii to 4th cen- 
turies B.C. (9) 

Coffin for kittens, bronze; 7th to 4th 
centuries B.C. (9) 

Wood block carved intaglio with cat, 
possibly used for holiday cookery; 
Pennsylvania- German, 19th century ( 9 ) 
Sleeping Kitten, black terra cotta; Cheryl 
Ellsworth, American, contemporary ( 12) 
Royal Cat, black terra cotta; Cheryl 
Ellsworth, American, contemporary ( 12) 
The Walnut Cat, carved walnut; Emily 
Bennet, American, contemporary ( 12 ) 
Six miniature figures of dressed cats, 
bronze, (Cinderella Story); Austria, 
Vienna, l9th century ( 16 ) 
Reclining Cat, stone; William Zorach, 
American, contemporary (18) 
Small cat, bronze; Jane Poupelet ( 1878- 
1932) French (23) 

Cat scratching baby, wood; Flanders, 
17th century ( 34 ) 

Cat in Tall Grass, ceramic sculpture; 
Carl Walters, American, contemporary 
(34) 

Cat, stone; William Zorach, American, 
contemporary (34) 

Figures of two cats, green jade; China, 
Han dynasty (206 B.C-220 A.D.) (34) 
Girdle ornament, white jade; China, 
Han dynasty (206 B.C-220 A.D.) (34) 
Figure of girl with cat, ivory; Japan, 
probably 19th century (34) 
Cat head, bronze; Egypt, 7th to 4th 
centuries B.C. (34) 

Small seated Sakmet, bronze; Egypt, 
7th to 4th centuries B.C. (34) 
Figure of cat, bronze; Egypt, 7th to 4th 
centuries B.C. ( 34 ) 

Figure of cat, bronze; inlaid with gold; 
Egypt, 7th to 4th centuries B.C. (34) 
Miniature figures of three cats and one 
rat, painted bronze; Austria, Vienna, 
late 19th century ( 39 ) 
Cat, black granite; Fred E. Hammar- 
gren, American, contemporary (42) 
Carving, wood; United States, l9th cen- 
tury folk art ( 42 ) 

Cat, chalkware; Pennsylvania, 19th cen- 
tury (43) 

Model for andiron in the form of a cat, 
plaster; Waldemar Raemisch, Ameri- 
can, contemporary (50) 
Reclining cat, terra cotta; Mason, 
American, contemporary (51) 
Tall cat, wood; Nimo, American, con- 
temporary (51) 

Group of cats, terra cotta; Eunice Saw- 
yer, American, contemporary (51) 
Cat, bronze; Wilhelm Schiitz (1840- 
1898), German (52) 
Cat with arched back, bronze; de- 
signed by Wilhelm Schiitz (1840- 
1898), German (52) 

13 



236. Cat, bronze, with Imperial Seal; Japan, 
19th century (52) 

237. Netsuke, black wood; Japan, early 19th 
century (55) 

238. Blind Kitten, stoneware; Germany, 
Hoehr-Grenzhausen, about 1918 (55) 

239. Reclining Cat, stone; John Flannagan, 
American, contemporary (59) 

TEXTILES 

240. Textile, blue and white printed rayon; 
designed by James Mason, English, con- 
temporary; made by Ascher (London) 
Inc. (2) 

241. Ribbon, satin, with colored cats' heads 
on black ground; France, 19th century 
(9) 

242. Textile, linen hand-blocked with de- 
signs of cats; designed by Vicke Lind- 
strand, Swedish, contemporary; made 
by A-B Elsa Gullberg Textilier och 



Inredning, Stockholm, Sweden (22) 
243. Page from swatch book, United States, 
1890-1891; made by the American 
Printing Company (29) 



TOYS AND GAMES 

244. 



20th 



245. 
246. 



Toy cat, papier mache; China, 

century (33) 

Jumping Jack, cardboard, Puss in Boots; 

Austria, 1927 (40) 

Card Game, Yum-Yum, or Old Maid; 

United States, 19th century ( 40 ) 

247. Card Game, Dr. Busby; United States, 
about 1843 (40) 

WALL-PAPER 

248. Wall-paper, Nursery Rhymes; England, 
1875-1885 (13) 

249. Wall-paper, panel for fireboard, printed 
from woodblocks; France, about 1840 
(13) 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 



In assembling material for the exhibition, the Museum has received most 
helpful suggestions and information from the following: Miss Christine 
Alexander, Miss Irma Bezold, Dr. Julius Bird, Miss Geraldine Bruckner, 
Miss Charlotte Clark, Miss Margaret Cooper Gay, Miss Meta Hansen, 
Harold G. Henderson, James Mason, Madame Marguerite Mespoulet, Mrs. 
Michelle Murphy, Miss Iona Plath, Mrs. Elizabeth J. Riefstahl, Mrs. Ruth 
Sasaki, Charles Scribners Sons, Harry Stone, Arthur L. Treble, Carl Van 
Vechten, Alfred Wallace, Robert Wilberforce and A. A. Wyn. To them, 
and to the many generous lenders enumerated here, are given most 
grateful thanks. 



14 



LENDERS TO THE EXHIBITION 

Anonymous (1) 

Ascher (London), Inc. (2) 

Ballet Socdsty, Inc. (3) 

WillBarnet (4) 
Miss Frances Bierer (5) 
Miss Susan Dwight Bliss (6) 
The Blumka Gallery (7) 
Mme. Maurice Brix (8) 
The Brooklyn Museum (9) 
Dr. Edwin Sharp Burdell ( 10 ) 
Peter Bus a (11) 
The Clay Clur (12) 
The Cooper Union Museum ( 13 ) 
The Cooper Union Museum Lirrary (14) 
Rose Cumming ( 15 ) 
Miss Rose Cumming ( 16 ) 
Miss Edna B. Donnell ( 17) 
The Downtown Gallery ( 18 ) 
Mrs. Charles Ezequelle ( 19 ) 
Esteran Frances (20) 
Colonel and Mrs. Edgar W. Garrisch (21 ) 
A-B Els a Gullrerg Textilier och Inredning (22) 
Miss Marian Hague (23) 
Hammer GALLERms (24) 
Harold G. Henderson (25) 
Georg Jensen Inc. (26) 
Markka Karasz (27) 
Kennedy and Company ( 28 ) 
Mrs. Bella C. Landauer (29) 
James A. Lewis and Son, Inc. (30) 
Mrs. William N. Little (31) 
C.T.Loo,Inc. (32) 
N. H. M. McOstrich (33) 
The Metropolitan Museum of Art (34) 

15 



The Pierpont Morgan Library ( 35 ) 

Ernest Moore ( 36 ) 

Miss Serbella Moores ( 37 ) 

Richard E. Morse (38) 

Dr. Alice Muehsam ( 39 ) 

The Museum of the City of New York (40) 

The Museum of Modern Art (41 ) 

The Newark Museum (42) 

The New- York Historical Society (43) 

The New York Public Library ( 44 ) 

Miss Mary A. Noon (45 ) 

Nura (46) 

Miss Gertrude Oppenheimer ( 47 ) 

The Philadelphia Museum of Art (48) 

Miss Sylvia Bayard Purinton ( 49 ) 

Waledmar Raemisch (50) 

Rena Rosenthal, Inc. (51 ) 

Miss Emily E. Saaty (52) 

Mrs. William Sawitzky (53) 

Dr. Carl Schuster (54) 

Arthur M. Stern (55) 

Steuben Glass (56) 

The Trustees of the Tate Gallery (57) 

Carl Van Vechten and the Anna Marble Pollock Memorial Library, 

Yale University ( 58 ) 
Carl Zigrosser (59) 

The numbers set in parentheses after the names of the lenders are used in 
the body of the Catalogue to identify ownership of individual objects. 



16